How are Old Age Security and Guaranteed Income Supplement benefits determined and how are they financed?


The Public Pension System (20%):

  • How are Old Age Security and Guaranteed Income Supplement benefits determined and how are they financed?
  • Are OAS & GIS subject to income tax? How do other sources of income effect OAS & GIS? Are there any exceptions/exemptions?
  • According to the 2019 federal budget report, what proportion of all federal expenses constitute elderly benefits expenses?
  • According to the Chief Actuary report, how are elderly transfer expenses projected to increase with population aging in the future?


  • How are Canada Pension Plan benefits determined and how are they financed? How does Canada’s financing scheme compare to a strict Pay-As-You-Go scheme?
  • What are the components of the CPP benefit formula and what does benefit formula do? Which components of the formula are subject to reform?


  • How does OAS & GIS influence measures of elderly absolute & relative poverty (what are the implications of price- vs. wage-indexation)?
  • From public pension benefits alone, in Canada what are the hypothetical gross replacement rates for someone with career average earnings equivalent to 25%, 100%, and 175% of the average industrial wage? How much does OAS & GIS alone replace for those with average career earnings amounting to 25% of the average industrial wage? Approximately at which level of average career earnings as a percentage of the average industrial wage do gross replacement rates fall below 60%? Make a line plot with average career earnings relative to the YMPE on the x-axis and the gross replacement rate on the y-axis; plot a separate series for replacement from OAS & GIS, CPP, and total public pension benefits. What does this imply about the functioning of Canada’s public pension system, and which subset of Canadians need to be wary of this?

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