How black mother/daughter bonds established in slave era influenced mother/daughter bonds in present day

How black mother/daughter bonds established in the slave-era influenced mother/daughter bonds in the present day. This essay will focus on Toni Morrison’s A Mercy. But will need 10 other outside scholarly sources to complete. Attached is the research proposal. This does not need a title page. Please use correct in-text citations. DO NOT stray from the topic. I will need to have the first two pages by 11/30/20

I have attached a work cited and proposal you can use. If you have any questions please let me know.

Paper Proposal for Panel:

Toni Morrison and Black Family Dynamics


Mother, Where For Art Thou?:

Mother and Daughter Bonds Within The Black Community 


By Adajah Morgan-Bennett

English Department, San Jose State University


A Mercy by Toni Morrison’s delved into the experiences of not only enslaved Africans but also Native Americans during the antebellum era. One such experience is that of Florens and her mother. Florens is given to Jacob Vaark to settle a debt, the trade was encouraged by Fl- mother. Throughout the novel, Florens looks to others for love because she felt as if she was abandoned.

In A Mercy, Morrison explores the dynamic of mother and daughter bonds. The topic of abandonment is blatant. There are also topics of pseudo familial relationships and turning to outside sources for the love of a mother.

This paper will explore not only how mother and daughter bonds were established during the slave era, but how it impacted the black family dynamic. It also will explore how these bonds have crossed generational timelines and still have an effect on black mothers and daughters and the black family dynamic in today’s society.



Annotated Bibliography


Friedman, Gloria. “The Mother-Daughter Bond”. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, vol 16, no. 1,

1980, pp. 90-97. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/00107530.1980.10745610.

Friedman is physco-analyses the relationship between mothers and daughters since the 19th century. There is evident dependency between then and what brought them together. It also explores the various issues and dynamics that may strengthen and weaken these bonds.


Glover, Emily. “It’s Science: The Mother-Daughter Bond Is Even More Powerful Than We        Thought”. Motherly, 2017, daughter-bonds-are-so-strong.

Glover offers a psychological perspective on the nature of mother-daughter relationship. Therefore, despite the past’s ills that reinforce these relationships, these bonds exist and are strong regardless of the past.


Hayden, Julia M. et al. “The Transmission of Birth Stories from Mother to Daughter: Self-          Esteem and Mother–Daughter Attachment”. Sex Roles, vol 55, no. 5-6, 2006, pp. 373- 383. Springer Science and Business Media LLC, doi:10.1007/s11199-006-9090-3.

Hayden explores the sex roles that women in society have played in the lives of their daughters. Since the time in slavery where sexual violence was imminent, women became the strong pillars for their daughters, hence strengthening their bonds.



Horstman, Haley Kranstuber et al. “Unfolding Narrative Meaning Over Time: The Contributions Of Mother-Daughter Conversations Of Difficulty On Daughter Narrative Sense-Making And Well-Being”. Communication Monographs, vol 83, no. 3, 2015, pp. 326- 348. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/03637751.2015.1068945.

Horstman describes the transitions that have occurred over time and their effects on daughter-0mother bonds. The journal describes the relation between mothers and daughters as that based on caring and looking out for each other and ensuring that each party is well taken care of.


Monk, Steve H. “What is the literary function of the motherhood motif in Toni Morrison’s A Mercy?.” Vanderbilt Undergraduate Research Journal 9 (2013).

Toni Morrison examines the function of motherhood in A Mercy. Analysis of motherhood reveals comments that Morrison has. Motherhood maximizes the characteristics of 2 prominent people, Florens and Jacob.


Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Knopf, 1987.

Beloved by Toni is an imaginative portrait of how the past haunted a woman. Sethe was a slave initially and then went to Ohio.


Muruthi, Bertranna A, Bermudez, J. Maria, Chou, Jessica L, Shivers, Carolyn M, Gale, Jerry, and Lewis, Denise. “Mother–Adult Daughter Questionnaire: Psychometric Evaluation Across First- and Second-Generation Black Immigrant Women.” The Family Journal (Alexandria, Va.) 28.2 (2020): 168-75. Web.

Muruthi et al.’s article explains the relationships between immigrant families, specifically mothers, and daughters. The article goes into the authoritative nature and parenting style of immigrant mothers. It discusses how this parenting style has an effect on their children’s life. It also discusses how children’s mental health is affected.


Nweke, OB. “Mother/Daughter Relationship: Psychological Implication Of Love In Toni Morrison’S Beloved”. Lwati: A Journal Of Contemporary Research, vol 6, no. 2, 2009. African Journals Online (AJOL), doi:10.4314/lwati.v6i2.46583. Accessed 2 Nov 2020.

Motherhood posed massive hurdles to Black women in slavery and was reflected in African American writers’ literal works. Moms who were Black lost the freedom to conduct caregiver duties to their kids.


Taylor, Ronald. “Kin Support And Parenting Practices Among Low-Income African American Mothers: Moderating Effects Of Mothers’ Psychological Adjustment”. Journal Of Black  Psychology, vol 37, no. 1, 2010, pp. 3-23. SAGE Publications,                doi:10.1177/0095798410372623.

Taylor shows how women are significantly tougher on their girls in the black community, and sometimes it appears as if they are nemesis. In these communities where crime, drugs, and sexual violence dominate, parents, and particularly mothers, must take a different approach to mentor their daughters. The journal further outlines the various parenting styles and support that mothers offer.


Xiong, Songtao, and Yuhua Fang. “Maternal Love And Freedom Under Slavery—Deconstruction Of The Female Subjectivity In ≪I≫Beloved≪/I≫”. Advances In Literary Study, vol 07, no. 04, 2019, pp. 155-163. Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., doi:10.4236/als.2019.74010. Accessed 2 Nov 2020.

In this piece, the author talks about how maternal love is linked to freedom. The author also speaks on how love is used to keep the blacks going during times of slavery.


















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