# Research 7

Here is a brief summary of a fictitious study. Read the summary and then respond to the questions that follow. MAKE NOTE THAT YOU MUST SUPPORT YOUR RESPONSES BELOW USING THE TEXTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES SO IT IS NOT SIMPLY ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS BUT SUPPORTING YOUR RESPONSES.

O’Connor studied factors affecting cardiovascular reactivity to a postural change in a sample of healthy men and women. Change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from supine to standing position was used as the measure of cardiac reactivity in a sample of 842 adults. Supine measurement of blood pressure was taken after participants had lain on an examination table for 15 minutes. Blood pressure was determined every 30 seconds for 2 minutes, and the four measurements were averaged. Participants then stood up immediately, and four additional measurements were made for another 2 minutes. Below is a table describing the characteristics of O’Connor’s sample.

Short Answer Questions: WHICH NEED TO BE SUPPORTED!!! Hint that 3 of the 4 scales is used in the example provided.

a.   Which variables in the table, if any, were measured on a nominal scale?

b.   Which variables in the table, if any, were measured on an ordinal scale?

c.   Which variables in the table, if any, were measured on an interval scale?

d.   Which variables in the table, if any, were measured on a ratio scale?

e.   Which measure(s) of central tendency, if any, are presented in this table

f.    Which measure(s) of variability, if any, are presented in this table

g.   If age is normally distributed, approximately what percent of the sample would be younger than 50?

h.  If BMI is normally distributed, approximately what percent of the sample would have a BMI higher than 33.1?

STEP 2: Compare and contrast reliability and validity explaining what these terms mean in quantitative research and how they are different from one another.

STEP 3: Describe 2 different approaches to reliability assessment with specific examples of how these two approaches are measured. Describe two major domains in validity domain providing specific examples of how the 2 you have chosen are measured in quantitative research.

Discussion Protocol. Please observe the following 3 x 3 rule: when writing your weekly discussions (applies to the original discussion posting): – A minimum of three paragraphs per DQ. Each paragraph should have a minimum of three sentences. All sections of the question need to be addressed. Remember that peer responses need to be substantive and extend the original discussion posting by making connections, relating to others’ ideas and adding supporting detail. Refer to grading rubric, to receive full credit each portion of the discussion posting must be addressed along with the 2 peer responses. The 2 peer responses must be substantive and add something to the original posts and should be a minimum of 4-5 sentences but can certainly be longer.

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