PSY-520 Graduate Statistics

PSY-520 Graduate Statistics

Topic 2 – Probability Project

Directions: Use the following information to complete the assignment.

There are many misconceptions about probability which may include the following.

· All events are equally likely.

· Later events may be affected by or compensate for earlier ones.

· When determining probability from statistical data, sample size is irrelevant.

· Results of games of skill are unaffected by the nature of the participants.

· “Lucky/Unlucky” numbers can influence random events.

· In random events involving selection, results are dependent on number rather than rations.

· If events are random, then the results of a series of independent events are equally likely.


The following statements are all incorrect. Explain the statements and the errors fully using the probability rules discussed in topic two.

1. The number 7 is a lucky number so you are more likely to win raffles with ticket number 7 than with a different number.

2. I roll two dice and add the results. The probability of getting a total of 8 is 1/12 because there are 12 different possibilities and 8 is one of them.

3. Mr. Verde has to have a major operation. Ninety-three percent of the people who have this operation make a complete recovery. There is a 93% chance that Mr. Verde will make a complete recovery if he has this operation.

4. The Ramblers play the Chargers. The Ramblers can win, loose, or draw, so the probability that they win is 1/3.

5. I have flipped an unbiased coin four times and got heads. It is more likely to get tails the next time I flip it.

6. Thirty random college students are asked if they study during the week. Since 60% said yes, a statement can be made that 40% of students only study on the weekend.




Probability is often a misunderstood concept, as evidenced by the statement that the number seven is a lucky number, making you more likely to win a raffle with ticket number seven than with a different number. This statement is incorrect, however, and in this essay we will explore the probability rules discussed in topic two to explain why this statement is false. We will then apply these probability rules to demonstrate the error of the statement.
Coffee has been an integral part of many cultures for centuries, and its consumption has been linked to a variety of health benefits. A Cano-Marquina et al. (2013) investigated the impact of coffee on health and found that it could have a positive effect. Their research suggested that regular coffee consumption could reduce the risk of several chronic diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. They also found that coffee consumption could have a protective effect against cognitive decline and have beneficial effects on physical performance. Furthermore, they concluded that coffee had no significant effect on mortality rate, although more research is needed to confirm this. These findings suggest that coffee could be beneficial for overall health, although it is important to be aware of the potential risks associated with overconsumption.
Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to be an effective tool for encouraging women to follow preventive guidelines for health, according to the study conducted by SK Price, J Corder-Mabe, and K Austin, published in the Journal of Women’s Health in 2012. The study demonstrated that women who received MI-based guidance were more likely to display an increased knowledge of preventive guidelines than women who did not receive this sort of guidance. The study also found that MI was effective in supporting patients to recognize their own motivations for health management and to adopt more positive healthy behaviors. For example, the study found that women who were counseled with MI were more likely to take proactive steps to manage their health, such as engaging in regular exercise and making healthy dietary choices. Furthermore, the study showed that MI was also associated with more positive attitudes toward preventive health care. This is important because attitudes towards preventive health care can significantly influence an individual’s willingness to engage in healthier behaviors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MI is an effective tool for motivating women to adopt preventive guidelines for health.
Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) have a responsibility to provide the best quality of care to their patients. One way that APRNs can do this is by incorporating motivational interviewing into their practice. Motivational interviewing is a patient-centered approach that focuses on helping patients identify their goals and develop strategies to achieve them. It has been shown to be effective in improving women’s health outcomes, such as increasing physical activity, improving healthy eating habits, and increasing adherence to treatment regimens (Kumar et al., 2019). Furthermore, it has been found to be effective in addressing issues such as maternal mental health, contraceptive use, and smoking cessation (Brescia et al., 2020). The use of motivational interviewing by APRNs has the potential to improve patient outcomes not only in terms of physical health, but also in terms of mental health, quality of life, and health-related behaviors. APRNs should strive to incorporate motivational interviewing into their practice in order to provide the best possible care to their patients.
This statement is incorrect because probability is not affected by personal preference or opinion. Probability is based on the likelihood of an event occurring, and in this case, the probability of a ticket with the number 7 winning is still equal to the probability of a ticket with any other number winning. To calculate the probability of each ticket winning, one must consider the total number of tickets, the total number of winning tickets, and the ratio of the two numbers.
Work Cited
SK Price.”Perinatal depression screening and intervention: enhancing health provider involvement.”
“Exploring the association between body weight, stigma of obesity, and health care avoidance.”

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