Article Analysis 2 Patient Preference and Satisfaction
Search Library and find two new health care articles that use quantitative research. Do not use articles from a previous assignment, or articles that appear in the Topic Materials or textbook.
Complete an article analysis for each using the “Article Analysis: Part 2” template.
Refer to the “Patient Preference and Satisfaction in Hospital-at-Home and Usual Hospital Care for COPD Exacerbations: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial,” in conjunction with the “Article Analysis Example 2,” for an example of an article analysis.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Background: It has been hypothesised that an ‘activitystat’ may biologically regulate energy expenditure or physical activity levels, thereby limiting the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. Using a randomised controlled trial design, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a six-week exercise stimulus on energy expenditure and physical activity, in order to empirically test this hypothesis.
Methods: Previously inactive adults (n = 129) [age (mean ± SD) 41 ± 11 year; body mass index 26.1 ± 5.2 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a Control group (n = 43) or a 6-week Moderate (150 min/week) (n = 43) or Extensive (300 min/week) (n = 43) exercise intervention group. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured using a combination of accelerometry (total counts, minutes spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity) and detailed time use recalls using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (total daily energy expenditure, minutes spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity) at baseline, mid- and end-intervention and 3- and 6- month follow up. Resting metabolic rate was measured at baseline and end-intervention using indirect calorimetry. Analysis was conducted using random effects mixed modeling.
Results: At end-intervention, there were statistically significant increases in all energy expenditure and physical activity variables according to both accelerometry and time use recalls (p < 0.001) in the Moderate and Extensive groups, relative to Controls. There was no significant change in resting metabolic rate (p = 0.78).
Conclusion: Taken together, these results show no evidence of an “activitystat” effect. In the current study, imposed exercise stimuli of 150–300 min/week resulted in commensurate increases in overall energy expenditure and physical activity, with no sign of compensation in either of these constructs.
Trial registration number: ACTRN12610000248066 (registered prospectively 24 March 2010)
Keywords: Physical activity, Energy expenditure, Accelerometry, Compensation
Abbreviations: Kcal, Kilocalories; MARCA, Multimedia activity recall for children and adults; METs, Metabolic equivalents; min, Minutes
Background Physical activity has many important physical and psy- chological benefits, including reducing the risk of cardio- vascular disease, type II diabetes, depression and some cancers, as well as increasing life expectancy [1, 2]. In recognition of this, many countries have developed
guidelines for minimum physical activity levels; however, many adults fail to meet such guidelines. Insufficient physical activity continues to be a major and costly con- tributor to the global burden of disease . As such, ef- forts to increase population physical activity levels are an important preventative health measure. A multitude of studies have been undertaken with the Article Analysis 2 Patient Preference and Satisfaction
aim of increasing individuals’ or groups’ daily physical activity levels. Such studies have taken a variety of forms, including group-based programs, self-management pro- grams and mass media campaigns. However, like many behaviour change interventions, physical activity inter- ventions generally have limited success, achieving
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org 1School of Health Sciences, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia 2School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Centre of Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health (CRExPAH), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© 2016 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Gomersall et al. BMC Public Health (2016) 16:900 DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3568-x
minimal or only short term change . In fact, a system- atic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that physical activity interventions in children had minimal effect on overall physical activity levels . This review included 30 studies, with objective accelerometry data from over 6,000 participants. The level of recidivism with physical activity interventions is notoriously high, often cited at 50 % drop out after six months , even when the stimulus to exercise is still continuing. One explanation that has been proposed to explain the
limited success of physical activity interventions is the ‘activitystat’ hypothesis. First described in 1998 by Dr Thomas Rowland, the activitystat hypothesis suggests that when an individual increases their physical activity or energy expenditure in one domain, there is a com- pensatory change in another domain, in order to main- tain an overall stable level of physical activity or energy expenditure . Physical activity interventions typically treat physical activity as a voluntary behaviour that may be changed in a sufficiently informed and motivated in- dividual. However, the activitystat hypothesis proposes that this mechanism is biologically regulated, with an activitystat taking on the characteristics of a homeostatic feedback loop, whereby a setpoint of physical activity or energy expenditure is maintained by compensatory ad- justments through, as yet undetermined, mechanisms. It is important to clarify that the concepts of biological control of energy expenditure and the activitystat hy- pothesis are not co-extensive. There is considerable evi- dence based on rodent and human research to support the broader concept of biological control in energy ex- penditure regulation [7, 8], however the activitystat is a specific model of how biological mechanisms may oper- ate using a homeostatic model. The question of if, and how an ‘activitystat’ may underpin our energy expend- iture and physical activity has been actively debated in the literature . Compensation, or substitution of habitual or baseline
levels of activity, is not often taken into account in exer- cise intervention studies . A systematic review of the literature has previously identified 28 studies that had experimentally investigated compensation in physical ac- tivity or energy expenditure and as such, the activitystat hypothesis . The results of this review suggested that there is conflicting evidence as to the existence of an activitystat with 63, 40 and 80 % of studies involving children, adult and older adult studies respectively, reporting evidence of compensation in either physical activity or energy expenditure . Several experimental papers investigating compensation have been published since this review [12–21], and similarly report conflict- ing results. In children and adults, several recent studies have shown some evidence of compensation with an im- posed exercise stimulus [12–15], however there are at
least as many that demonstrate no evidence of an activi- tystat or compensatory effect [16–19]. By contrast, re- cent studies in older adults have provided some evidence of compensation [20, 21]. A significant limitation to the current literature is that
there is a lack of consistency in the methodological ap- proaches used to investigate the activitystat hypothesis and compensation. As a result, the systematic review  included a number of recommendations for future studies. These included but were not limited to: meas- urement of both energy expenditure and physical activity using a variety of high-quality measurement tools; that activity should be assessed over sufficiently long periods and sufficiently regularly to detect compensation (with a recommendation of 4–12 weeks); that the exercise stimulus should be sufficiently high to trigger a sup- posed compensatory mechanism; that analyses should be ‘per protocol’ to ensure exposure to the stimulus; and finally, that a control group should be used to account for shifting baselines . To date, no study comprehen- sively covers this methodological framework. To address this gap the current study was specifically
designed to investigate the activitystat hypothesis, taking into account these key methodological limitations. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of two different imposed exercise loads in previously insuf- ficiently active adults on energy expenditure and phys- ical activity. It was hypothesised that if an activitystat was present, then participants would adhere to the imposed exercise load, but reduce total energy expend- iture and/or physical activity in other aspects of their daily life resulting in no or minimal net increase in en- ergy expenditure of physical activity, relative to controls. Article Analysis 2 Patient Preference and Satisfaction
Methods This study used a single-blinded, multi-armed, rando- mised controlled trial design. Ethical approval was provided from the University of South Australia Human Research Ethics Committee and this study was registered prospectively on 24 March 2010 with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000248066).
Participants and recruitment Using convenience sampling, potential participants were recruited via email and print advertising through a metropolitan university, a tertiary hospital and several government departments in Adelaide, South Australia. Interested participants were invited to attend an initial laboratory session to complete informed consent and the Active Australia Survey. If eligible, a second laboratory session was conducted to complete the Sports Medicine Australia Pre-Exercise Screening System. Participants who met the following inclusion criteria were invited to
Gomersall et al. BMC Public Health (2016) 16:900 Page 2 of 14
participate in the study: (1) aged 18–60 years at their last birthday; (2) categorised as insufficiently active, defined as participating in less than 150 min of MVPA per week according to the Active Australia Survey ; and (5) considered safe to start an exercise program according to the Sports Medicine Australia Pre-Exercise Screening System . All participants were provided with a $200 gratuity at completion of the study.
Measurement protocol Participants were assessed on five measurement occa- sions: baseline (the week before the program began), mid- (weeks 3–4) and end-intervention (week 6), and at 3- and 6-month follow-up (weeks 12 and 24 following the intervention). Following completion of baseline test- ing, participants were randomly allocated to one of the three study conditions (Moderate or Extensive exercise group or a Control group) by a person external to the study using a computer-generated random allocation se- quence, with allocation concealment maintained until the moment of allocation. Participants were randomised using a non-stratified, 1:1:1 allocation ratio. All outcome measures were conducted by trained research assistants who were blinded to group allocation. Although it was not possible to blind the participants to group allocation due to the nature of a physical activity intervention, par- ticipants were blinded to the activitystat hypothesis.
Measurement tools Indirect calorimetry via ventilated hood Resting metabolic rate was measured using indirect cal- orimetry via a ventilated hood (ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400, ParvoMedics, Sandy, UT) at baseline and end- intervention. The measurement protocol for resting metabolic rate was developed based on a methodological review by Compher and colleagues . Participants were required to be rested and fasted for a minimum of 12 h, measurements were taken in an environmentally controlled chamber with an ambient temperature of 24 ° C and relative humidity of 60 % and after a 15 min equilibration period, respiratory gases were collected for 30 min. Minute ventilation, O2 and CO2 content were analysed using the ParvoMedics TrueOne analyser and minute-by-minute samples were taken to calculate rest- ing metabolic rate. Resting metabolic rate (kcal/day) was defined as the lowest five-minute average obtained dur- ing the 30-min measurement period with a coefficient of variation of <10 % to ensure that a steady state meta- bolic rate was achieved . The TrueOne analyser sys- tem has demonstrated reliability and validity and has been shown to yield values not significantly different from the criterion Douglas bag method . Article Analysis 2 Patient Preference and Satisfaction
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