Breast cancer among women globally.
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Breast cancer has been identified as the second cause of all cancer demises among women globally and regionally. According to a World Health Organization report, approximately 519000 women deaths are linked to breast cancer, and close to one million women develop breast cancer annually. Hence this classifies breast cancer as a primary public health concern globally. DeSantis et al. (2019) state that women need to be on the lookout as the incidence rate of breast cancer remains exponentially high and affects all age groups. This is the primary reason why breast cancer examination has gained increased popularity among the healthcare statistics. According to the National Breast Cancer Foundation, breast cancer awareness is essential as one out of every woman can develop breast cancer in their lifetime (Terry et al., 2019). Breast cancer examination has become a significant component in the physical examination in men and women but mostly women as they are the most affected. Every healthcare provider must carry out a breast examination to rule out the development of cancer. Breast self-examination practices are being encouraged globally hence contributing to the popularity of statistics in breast cancer examinations.
Research and scientific evidence have contributed significantly to the growing knowledge and improvements made in breast cancer treatments. Various medical advances, including surgical and medical treatments, have evolved and changed breast cancer management. In the past, cancer was known to have no cure, and the ancient people believed that treatment intervention might be more harmful. Treatments were only based on faith and miracles (Ades et al., 2017). Surgical approaches were feared due to significant loss of blood and lack of anesthesia in the past. In the 19th and 20th century advances were made in surgical treatments. The radical Halsted mastectomy, which was the primary treatment, was developed to remove the entire tumor with no damage caused to other lymphatic vessels or healthy tissues. A more breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) evolved over time and took the place of radical surgery. Improvements have continued to be made in radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy. These medical advances aim to ensure optimal health outcomes and prevent morbidities. Pharmacotherapy has also been prescribed as a treatment modality for breast cancer, such as tamoxifen, Arimidex, and anatrozoleand (Ades et al., 2017). As it stands today, breast cancer treatment depends on the stage, individual’s sensitivity to hormones, age, preferences, and overall health status. In the future, different approaches to breast cancer will be developed. Approaches that look into the clinical results and molecular tests of breast cancer should be developed to enhance effective treatment response.
Early diagnosis of breast cancer plays a vital role in the treatment process. There are various many diagnostic procedures that healthcare practitioners employ to detect breast cancer cells, such as mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy, and positron emission tomography. The future of breast cancer diagnosis targets to develop diagnostic tests suitable for all age groups and those that can rapidly detect breast cancer at early stages. According to Ades et al. (2017), the most current and effective form of treatment is surgery, including lumpectomy, radical mastectomy, and reconstruction.
According to the American Heart Association’s latest report on heart disease statistics, cardiovascular diseases and stroke impact the country’s economic burden negatively. Heart disease has been categorized as the leading cause of death in the United States, while stroke is the fifth leading cause of death. Hypertension, cholesterol levels, cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes are the leading cause of the development of various cardiovascular diseases (Virani et al., 2020). These are categorized as modifiable risk factors hence can be controlled with a change in daily lifestyle. Controlling these risk factors for heart disease forms the best prevention mechanism for heart disease occurrence as most heart diseases are attributed to poor lifestyle behaviors.
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