Philosophical, ideological, and theoretical perspectives on education.
Philosophical, ideological and theoretical perspectives are important for understanding the state of education today. They can help us understand how power plays out in schools and classrooms as well as provide insight into how ideas about education have changed over time. In this post I will discuss some of these perspectives and explain why they matter in contemporary discussions about education policy.
This chapter introduces you to the basic concepts and theories of education. The purpose of education is to develop a person’s ability to think, reason and communicate. As such, it has been defined by many people as a process that helps learners acquire knowledge in order to improve their lives or advance their careers.
Theories of Education
A theory is an explanation or description of something; it provides an understanding about why something happens or how things work. In this sense theories can be used for simple explanations (such as “the sun rises because it follows its path around Earth”) but also more complex ones (such as “the sun rises because there are chemical reactions between atoms in our atmosphere). Philosopher Karl Popper believed that every scientific theory must be falsifiable (able to prove wrong). This means that if new evidence arises which contradicts what you believe then your theory should change accordingly.
Philosophy is the study of fundamental problems and concepts. It is about thinking about the world. Philosophy involves asking questions, formulating answers and making judgments about what we have found out through our inquiry. In this sense, philosophy aims to provide an understanding of the nature of reality; to know ourselves better; to understand why we do what we do (or don’t); or even just to find some pleasure in life by exploring it with others!
Philosophy can be applied at any level from high school students learning new material for a test to graduate students in their final year working on papers for a dissertation or thesis project. Philosophers often look at how different people approach these same issues differently—this leads them into areas such as ethics (how should one act?), epistemology (how can one know things?) as well as ontology (what exists/is real?).
In the realm of education, we often hear the phrase “to educate.” What does this mean? It means that education is essentially about teaching someone how to think. But what exactly does it mean to think?
To begin with, thinking is a difficult task; indeed, some would say it’s impossible for anyone who isn’t an expert in their field (or at least has some serious research experience). If someone were able to do all their thinking without any help from books or other people (and I hope this is not true), then they wouldn’t need any other form of help learning how
To understand this concept better, let’s take another look at our definition: “education” = learning how learn = learning something new
Philosophical theories, such as those of Socrates and Plato, are a way of thinking about the world. They help us understand what things mean and how they work. Philosophy can also help us make sense of our experiences through an understanding that there is more to life than what we see with our eyes and ears; it may even help us decide what actions will be most beneficial for each person or group in society (Socrates).
Philosophy also provides a framework for decision making by informing us about different ways we might act or react in certain situations (Plato). This can be especially helpful when considering difficult dilemmas such as whether or not to attend college or university after high school graduation; choosing between two careers after college graduation; deciding whether or not one should get married before having children; deciding whether one should stay home instead of working full-time after graduating from college/university since this would have implications on future employment opportunities available later down the line when looking toward retirement age…etcetera!
Ideology is a set of beliefs, values and ideas that are held by a group of people. It can be used to support the status quo and to maintain power. In education, ideology is often used to justify oppression or discrimination in schools based on race, gender or class.
Ideology has been defined as “the collective mental framework within which members make sense out of their world,” (Munoz/Rosaldo). Ideologies help us understand what we have inherited from our pasts; they give us information about who we are and where we come from; they offer us ways to interpret social reality; they structure our understanding of others’ actions (or lack thereof); they explain why certain things happen while other things don’t happen…
What is ideology in education?
Critical pedagogy, as a theory, seeks to critique ideological and theoretical power structures in classrooms. It does this by examining the current state of education, asking why it exists and what we can do about it. This can be done through philosophical exploration (how our society came to be), ideological analysis (what assumptions we make about gender or race) or theoretical analysis (how ideas are taught).
Critical pedagogy is not just about critiquing these power structures within classrooms; it also considers how these power structures affect students outside them—on their way home from class or interacting with classmates at lunchtime.
Theoretical perspectives on education
Theoretical perspectives on education are the most important because they provide a foundation for other kinds of research and theory. For example, if you study education through a theoretical lens, you will be able to see how different theories fit together and interact with each other. This allows you to make more informed decisions about what types of research might be helpful for your own work in an area like this one.
Ideological perspectives on education
Ideological perspectives on education are not quite so useful as theoretical ones because they do not necessarily offer concrete advice or insights into specific problems within our field; however, they do give us some insight into how we think about certain issues related to schools (and thus can help guide our thinking).
These theoretical perspectives have been useful to me as I work on my own educational theories. They help me understand other people’s beliefs and how they relate to what we teach at school. Theoretical perspectives can also help us make sense of our own ideas so that we can better understand why we believe what we do. If you’re interested in exploring any one of these theoretical perspectives more deeply, there are many resources available online where you can find relevant articles and books (such as this one).
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