The smoking of cigarettes is a known risk factor associated with cancers found in most parts of the body and is linked to 1 in 3 deaths from cancer in the United States

Scenario: The smoking of cigarettes is a known risk factor associated with cancers found in most parts of the body and is linked to 1 in 3 deaths from cancer in the United States (Howlader et al. 2013). The primary routes by which cigarette smoke influence cancer development include the formation of double strand breaks by carcinogenic compounds and alteration of the epigenetic silencing of transcriptional regulatory elements. Compounds including chromium, arsenic and formaldehyde are found in cigarette smoke and induce breaks in DNA triggering repair mechanisms and silencing of nearby genes. Nicotine has been shown to activate gene expression by removing methyl groups that cause silencing in adult tissues, as well as affecting the silencing of genes during early embryogenesis (Lee and Pausova 2013).

Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Neyman N, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, et al., editors. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2010.

Lee KWK, Pausova Z. 2013. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation. Front Genet, 4:132.

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